In order to maximize the lifetime and efficacy of an Engine, it is important to be aware of possible faults that may occur and to know how to catch them early. Regular monitoring and maintenance can make it possible to detect new flaws before much damage has been done. These faults can all lead to the thermal degradation of the oil and paper insulation within the Engine. Fault detection in Engines can provide early warning of electrical failure and could prevent unwanted losses.



1) Sensor

Sensor are basically use to convert physical quantity in electrical form there are different sensor are evadible for various physical quantity. In our project we control 3 parameter first is Temperature, Voltage, , oil level .For this four parameter we use three different sensors

Temp sensor

Temperature sensor are use to control temperature of Engine  There are various type of temperature sensor are available in market such as NTC Thermistor, PTC thermistor, PT-100, Thermocouple Etc. out of which NTC & PTC thermistor and PT-100 give change in resistance with respective change in temp so there is need of resistance bridge circuit which is critical and lack accuracy. But thermocouple type sensor gives directly output in mile- volt with respect to change in temp. Instrumentation amplifier further modifies this temperature so it was easy and simple way to convert temperature in required electrical form, so we use thermocouple as temperature sensor in our project.


In our project we have to calculate total voltage taken by Engine. So voltage is our first block of project.

Oil level sensor

Engine oil is usually a highly-refined mineral oil that is stable at high temperatures and has excellent electrical insulating properties. Its functions are to insulate, suppress corona and arcing, and to serve as a coolant. Oil is used in Engine s to insulate and cool the windings. since heat reduces the efficiency of every electrical machine, oil is used in Engine  for example to cool and maintain the efficiency level of the Engine.

2) Amplifier

Amplifier is required for temperature sensor

3) Analog to digital converter

To convert current, temperature in to its equivalent binary form we use 8-bit type Analogue to digital converter. This converter convert 0 to 5 volts D.C at input can convert its corresponding binary value. This IC is very easy to interface with micro controller

4) Micro controller unit:

Micro controller IC 89s51 is heart of our project.  We select this micro controller IC for our project for following no. of advantages.

1) Internal 8 K bytes of electrically erasable programmable read only   memory for feeding programmed so that there is no need of external EPROM.

2) Four 8 bit input, output port p0, p1, p2, p3 out of which we use two port to read ADC and other port is use to connect 16x2 alphanumeric displays for written current & temperature purpose. Operating voltage of 3.5 to 6v DC which is easily available by using voltage regulator IC.

4) Internal 128 byte RAM to store temporally storage of data.  In which  we can feed took up table to turn ON/OFF relay.

5) Three 8-bit time/counter are present for timing and counting purpose. 4 external and 2 internal interrupt are available.

Micro controller can read the data (for the corresponding channel) available at output of ADC and convert in equivalent alphanumeric code & display on 16x2 dot matrix liquid crystal display.

5) 16 X 2 Dot matrix liquid crystal display

In our project we use alpha numeric display instead of 7 segment led  display because on 7 segment reading and writing alphanumeric such as X,Q W,M is quite difficult, so we use directly readymade alpha numeric display available in market this Display has two column of 16 character each i.e. we can writ message up to 32 character on it.

6) Relay, buzzer

When any one-parameter crosses its level then micro controller turn on relay and buzzer and through relay, and cut off main 230 volt supply so that system is trapped.


  • Sensor
  • Amplifier
  • ADC
  • Microcontroller
  • LCD
  • Relay
  • Buzzer
  • Transformer
  • Diodes
  • Resistor
  • Capacitor


  • Keil Compiler
  • Language: Embedded C or Assembly